Initial Settlement

About 11,000 years ago, at the end of the ice age, the first people arrived in this part of the world.

These first settlers left very few traces among which some characteristic tools stand out, such as dart or spear points in the shape of fish tails and stone knives.



Indigenous Conanas

Indigenous Mortars

Decorative Objects



The two mortars are from Valle de Ongamira, Mortero Roca 2 and Mortero Dos Lunas 5, are movable rock mortars. They were used to grind food or other elements, and nowadays the neighbors move them as decoration to the courtyards of their houses. They belong to prehistoric communities that inhabited Valle de Ongamira.


Procedente de It comes from Cosquín, Punilla, Córdoba, fragment of ceramic statuette. It belongs to the agro-pottery groups of Córdoba.  Perteneciente a los grupos agro alfareros de Córdoba.

Procedente de It comes from Arroyo de los Moyanos, Córdoba, fragments of reassembled ceramic statuettes. It belongs to the agro-pottery groups of Córdoba. Perteneciente a los grupos agro alfareros de Córdoba. 

We found no information about its origin, only that it comes from an archaeological site in Córdoba. It is also a ceramic fragment. It belongs to the agro-pottery groups of Córdoba.


The effective occupation of the territory took place at least in 6,000 B.C. by people who had a hunter-gatherer way of life and were organized in small groups formed by a few families. They were nomads, moving their homes several times a year between mountains and valleys. They are known by the name of Ayampitín, usually used to refer to the large laurel-leaf-shaped spearheads that were one of their characteristic tools.


Around 2000 B.C., a greater number of archaeological sites were recognized, suggesting a population increase. In addition, these hunter-gatherer groups experienced a series of social changes that materialized in a decrease in mobility, that is, they began to live longer in some places where they established base camps. 

The tools they used in their daily lives also became more specialized and diversified. From this period, triangular-shaped projectile points carved in rock and artifacts made from animal bones stand out.


Around 500 A.D., the people living in this territory experienced new social changes that resulted in in the adoption of a village way of life, where the old base camps were transformed into permanent villages. This process was probably gradual, adopting local peculiarities. In general terms, it involved the incorporation of agriculture (corn, quinoa, squash), the domestication of animals such as llamas, and the adoption of ceramics. 

These peoples were the ones who came in contact with the Spanish conquerors, who called them Comechingones and Sanavirones.

Text and images by IDACOR-CONICET (Córdoba Anthropology Institute - National Council for Scientific and Technical Research), Museum of Anthropology, FFyH (School of Philosophy and Humanities), National University of Córdoba (UNC).